By Institute of Medicine, Board on Global Health, Forum on Microbial Threats, Alison Mack, David A. Relman, Eileen R. Choffnes
Years of utilizing, misusing, and overusing antibiotics and different antimicrobial medications has resulted in the emergence of multidrug-resistant 'superbugs.' The IOM's discussion board on Microbial Threats held a public workshop April 6-7 to debate the character and resources of drug-resistant pathogens, the results for worldwide future health, and the suggestions to reduce the present and destiny influence of those superbugs.
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Additional resources for Antibiotic Resistance: Implications for Global Health and Novel Intervention Strategies: Workshop Summary
All rights reserved. Antibiotic Resistance: Implications for Global Health and Novel Intervention Strategies: Workshop Summary 14 Antibiotic Resistance discovered high levels of both resistant organisms and resistance genes among human commensals. , 2009), and non-human mammals (CloudHansen et al. , 2007) that had not been directly exposed to antibiotic drugs. AMR Genes Microbes have exchanged genes encoding resistance mechanisms for millennia. , 2010; IOM, 2009b; Salmond and Welch, 2008). The vast majority of antimicrobial resistance genes reside on mobile genetic elements such as insertion sequences, integrons, transposons, and plasmids, according to workshop speaker Henry “Chip” Chambers of the University of California, San Francisco.
These elements excise from the chromosome by site-specific recombination and are transferred from one bacterium to another, Courvalin explained. Like antibiotic-induced transformation, this is an infectious phenomenon. word=transformation [accessed June 16, 2010]). 13 Chromosomally located gene clusters that encode phage-linked integrases and conjugation proteins as well as other genes associated with an observable phenotype, such as virulence or symbiosis. html [accessed June 16, 2010]). Copyright © National Academy of Sciences.
All rights reserved. Antibiotic Resistance: Implications for Global Health and Novel Intervention Strategies: Workshop Summary 20 Antibiotic Resistance (like malaria) as well as those that have caused recent pandemics such as HIV/ AIDS and influenza (WHO, 2010). Resistance to one of the very first antibiotics, penicillin, arose almost immediately upon its introduction to the clinic, as has occurred for every antibiotic developed since. , 2007). , 2008; Rice, 2008): • • • • • • Enterococcus faecium Staphylococcus aureus Klebsiella pneumoniae Acinetobacter baumanii Pseudomonas aeruginosa Enterobacter spp.
Antibiotic Resistance: Implications for Global Health and Novel Intervention Strategies: Workshop Summary by Institute of Medicine, Board on Global Health, Forum on Microbial Threats, Alison Mack, David A. Relman, Eileen R. Choffnes