By John Rawls
Because it seemed in 1971, John Rawls's A concept of Justice has turn into a vintage. the writer has now revised the unique variation to remedy a few problems he and others have present in the unique booklet. Rawls goals to precise an important a part of the typical center of the democratic tradition--justice as fairness--and to supply a substitute for utilitarianism, which had ruled the Anglo-Saxon culture of political concept because the 19th century. Rawls substitutes the precise of the social agreement as a extra passable account of the fundamental rights and liberties of voters as loose and equivalent individuals. "Each person," writes Rawls, "possesses an inviolability based on justice that even the welfare of society as an entire can't override." Advancing the tips of Rousseau, Kant, Emerson, and Lincoln, Rawls's conception is as strong this present day because it was once whilst first released.
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Extra info for A Theory of Justice: Revised Edition (Belknap)
I believe that the contrast between the contract view and utilitarianism remains essentially the same in all these cases. Therefore I shall compare justice as fairness with familiar variants of intuitionism, perfectionism, and utilitarianism in order to bring out the underlying differences in the simplest way. With this end in mind, the kind of utilitarianism I shall describe here is the strict classical doctrine which receives perhaps its clearest and most accessible formulation in Sidgwick. 9 We may note ﬁrst that there is, indeed, a way of thinking of society which makes it easy to suppose that the most rational conception of jus9.
A second contrast is that whereas the utilitarian extends to society the principle of choice for one man, justice as fairness, being a contract view, assumes that the principles of social choice, and so the principles of justice, are themselves the object of an original agreement. There is no reason to suppose that the principles which should regulate an association of men is simply an extension of the principle of choice for one man. On the contrary: if we assume that the correct regulative principle for anything depends on the nature of that thing, and that the plurality of distinct persons with separate systems of ends is an essential feature of human societies, we should not expect the principles of social choice to be utilitarian.
In this way he ascertains the intensity of these desires and assigns them their appropriate weight in the one system of desire the satisfaction of which the ideal legislator then tries to maximize by adjusting the rules of the social system. On this conception of society separate individuals are thought of as so many different lines along which rights and duties are to be assigned and scarce means of satisfaction allocated in accordance with rules so as to give the greatest fulﬁllment of wants.
A Theory of Justice: Revised Edition (Belknap) by John Rawls